Call For Papers. Vol.5 No.2 2020

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Training Computers to Recognize Facial Expressions of Humans: A Machine Learning Approach
Ahamed Rameez Mohamed Nizzad and Kunaratnam Kunarakulan

Humans are precise in facial expressions and recognizing them. Facial expression is a routine task of humans. Training Computers to recognize such humanly task as closed to humans can be useful in numerous ways such as offering services as per the mode of consumer or user and will enhance the phenomenon of human computer interaction. Environment and surroundings are the sources from where humans naturally learn the models of facial expressions and they have logical models in brain, and with the comparison of models, they are able to recognize the expressions of others. This research aimed to design and develop a robust facial expression recognition system by combining various techniques available in Computer Vision and Machine Learning. Hence, it was crucial to understand the human psychological aspects of facial expression in a precise manner. For the training and demonstration purposes, human volunteers were utilized along with facial expression dataset such as CK+ from internet. Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) were occupied for feature extraction and optimization respectively. In addition, different kinds of AI based tools and techniques were employed to mimic the human ability of recognizing facial expressions. The outcome presents a novel approach to facial expression recognition with modified LBP and CNN. The outcome of the research suggests that further studies and optimization would lead to commercially viable solutions such as products or services as per the expression and emotions of the consumers. The researchers will continue to optimize the outcome to supersede humans in recognizing facial expressions in future.
Keywords: Facial Expression, Face Recognition, Machine Learning, Computer Vision, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN)


Nexus between Quality of Smartphone Online Banking Application and Customer Retention
Manjula Madushani Hewage and Nadarajah Rajeshwaran

Nexus between quality of smart phone online banking application and customer retention is still obscure as per the previous finding, particularly in Matale district. Objectives of the study have three folds, first, to identify the extent of quality of the smartphone online banking application as well as customer retention, second, to examine the impact of smartphone online banking application on customer retention and third, to examine whether quality of the smartphone online banking application varies among demographic factors of customers in selected banks. The study was undertaken by collecting the data from two hundred banking app users of selected banks in Matale via structured questionnaire (Google Form). Univariate, bivariate analysis (correlation and regression) and ANOVA and Independent Sample T test were applied to analyze the data with SPSS. Results showed that, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived trust are very high level though the perceived risk is very low level. Further, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived trust are positively and significantly associated with customer retention while it has a negative insignificant relationship with perceived risk. Finally, it is concluded that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust positively and significantly impacts on customer retention, whereas perceived risk insignificant negative impacts on customer retention. Moreover, perceived quality of the smartphone online banking application varies among types of occupation of customers while perceived ease of use is varied among educational level. Findings of the study would be helpful to software designers and managers of banks to further enrich the applications to retain the customers.
Keywords: Quality of Banking App, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Trust, Perceived Risk, Customer retention


Payment Histories in Digital Games – A Way To More Transparency
Philipp Christian Lohse

This paper discusses the public acceptance of the mandatory implementation of payment histories in digital games in multiple countries. The presented data in this study was collected by an online survey in July 2019. Showing a payment history inside digital games is appreciated by the majority of survey participants. Determinants that represent the increase of transparency or fairness highly influence the appreciation for a payment history.
Keywords: Freemium; Digital Gaming; Survey; Transparency; Loot Box


Web based Staff Management System – Development for the Establishment Branch of University
Ushamini Kuleswararajan, Jayanitha Sathiyanathan and Sanjeevan Vivekanantha

In this world of growing technologies everything has been computerized. With large number of work opportunities the human workforce has increased. Hence, it’s necessary to maintain the staff records in well-organized way. Many organizations specially the government institutes are still using the traditional methods which are purely paper-based to store the data of their employees. This waste the time to generate reports or search for employees’ records and loss or damage of files. Thus, there is a need of a system which can handle the data of such a large number of staff in an organization. This paper discusses the development of a computerized staff management system to the Establishment branch of Vavuniya campus, University of Jaffna. The need of staff management system was analysed through the survey and discussion with respective personnel and it was 84.9% positive response for the development of the system. The web based staff management system was developed using ASP.NET while the database designed using MYSQL to maintain the staff details, calculate the monthly salary of the staffs, forward the salary increment particulars to the financial branch, maintain reports of the work and salary of the staffs etc. This can pave way for the efficient management of the staffs of each particular department & improvement of the organizational performance.
Keywords: Staff management system, Web development, Human resource, Human resource management, ASP.NET


Emotion Recognition System with Facial Expression System for a Vehicle to Make the Journey Harmless
Haju Mohamed Mohamed Naleer and Narmadi Wathsala Dissanayake

Image processing is commonly used to recognize objects. It can be used to detect human facial expressions and emotions by observing facial features. Capturing emotions depends on many tools and conditions such as brightness, camera, changing rate of facial features etc. Emotion recognition is software that allows program to “read” the emotions on the human face using advanced image processing. In order to understand not only what a person’s face or image looks like, but also how it looks. Emotion recognition has been applied in many fields such as Medical, Security, and Business etc. There are many difficulties in developing a good emotion recognition system for the human face in real time. Since most of the time facial features of expression and the style of showing emotion to the outside world is different from person to person. Therefore, it is very difficult to build an accurate system for real time emotion recognition. This project is to detect human facial expressions to predict the current emotional state. The system specially focused on reducing fatal road accidents due to drivers' state of emotion. Initially it is built to recognize the human emotion through facial expressions and then evaluated to detect drowsiness using facial landmarks to ensure the safety of the driver. Training has been done with Kaggle dataset for seven emotional states (Neutral, Happy, Angry, Sad, Scared, Surprised and Disgust) called universal emotions. In order to predict drowsiness, it uses specific 12 points on face (6 points on each eye) in shape predictor 68 face landmarks. Evaluated system has given 66% accuracy in testing and drowsiness alert also showed a very good success rate.
Keywords: Highways Traffic Surveillance System, IP camera, OpenCV


Influence of Smart Devices and IoT Applications in Tourism: A Survey Analysis
Mohammed Satheek Suhail Razeeth, Razik Kariapper Ahmadh Rifai Kariapper, Ponnamplam Pirapuraj, Mohamed Jamaldeen Ahmed Sabani, Abdul CarderMohamed. Nafrees

The tourism is the exercises of individuals travelling to and remaining in spots outside their native surrounding for leisure, business, education, medication or any other purposes for not more than one successive year. The fundamental needs of a tourist are comfortable accommodation, reservation and other online services, foods, tour guide / language guide to relevant places, maps and security measure. These activities are nourished with information and communication technology with including, smart hand held devices, smart wearable devices and IoT devices. This paper figure outs which group of devices in ICT impacts (helps) tourists and tourism industry via literature survey analysis. This study shows that, wearable devices are mostly suitable for tourism depend on the factors used to analyze. Since these types of devices are useful in tourism in different circumstances in its own way with few drawbacks. When functionalities of these devices are combined, the drawbacks can be mitigated.
Keywords: Tourism, IoT, ICT, Smart Devices, Smart Wearable Device